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Bell's Palsy is a paralysis of the facia nerve resulting in inability to control facial muscles in the affected side. Several conditions can cause a facial paralysis, e.g. brain tumor, stroke, and Lyme disease. However, if no specific cause can be identified, the condition is known Bell's Palsy. Named after Scottish anatomist Charles Bell, who first described it, Bell's palsy is the most common acute mononeuropathy (disease involving only one nerve), and is the most common cause of acute facial nerve paralysis.
Bell's Palsy is defined as an idiopathic unilateral facial nerve paralysis, usually self-limiting. The trademark is rapid onset of partial or complete palsy, usually in a single day.
It is thought that an inflammatory condition leads to swelling of the facial nerve (nervus facialis). The nerve travels through the skull in a narrow bone canal beneath the ear. Nerve swelling and compression in the narrow bone canal are thought to lead to nerve inhibition, damage or death. No readily identifiable cause for Bell palsy has been found, but clinical and experimental evidence suggests herpes simplex type 1 infection may play a role.
Doctors may prescribe anti-inflammatory and anti-viral drugs. Early treatment is necessary for the drug therapy to have effect. The effect of treatment is still controversial. Most people recover spontaneously and achieve near-normal functions. Many show signs of improvement as early as 10 days after the onset, even without treatment.
Protect the eye. Often the eye in the affected side cannot be closed. The eye must be protected from drying up, or the cornea may be permanently damaged resulting in impaired vision.